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Becht Engineering Blog

In this section of the site contributing authors submit interesting articles relating to the various services, industries and research & development efforts of Becht Engineering.

Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units - Part 3: Managing the Chlorides

chloride-processing-at-night Chlorides in Hydroprocessing - Part 3
The first two articles of this series provided a methodical approach to identifying a chloride problem in a hydroprocessing unit, determining the size of the problem, and narrowing it down to a likely source or sources.  This final article addresses approaches to dealing with various sources.Read Part 1 of this blog    Read Part 2 of this blogStep 4 - Managing the ChloridesNow that you have a clue about the magnitude of chlorides present and where they might be coming from, you can address the problems.  There are three fundamental strategies or options for controlling chlorides in a hydroprocessing unit:Keep chlorides outIntercept what gets throughDesign and monitor for chloridesBy the application of these strategies, individually and in combination, chlorides have been effectively controlled in many units.Keeping Chlorides OutAs a general rule, target to have much less than 2-3 ppm chlorides in feed and less than 0.5 ppm in makeup reformer hydrogen...
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Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units - Part 2: Magnitude and Source(s) the Problem

chloride-processing-at-night Chlorides in Hydroprocessing - Part 2
The first article of this series introduced the symptoms of a chloride problem in a hydroprocessing unit.  In this article, we will explore how to interpret the symptoms by determining how much chloride-containing material we are looking for and identifying the possible or likely source(s) for this amount of material, embodied in Steps 2 and 3 of the problem analysis.Read Part 1 of this blog    Read Part 3 of this blogStep 2 - How Big is the Problem?It is very helpful to know the magnitude and type of the chloride problem before you go looking for a possible source.  Start by chemically analyzing selected streams for chlorides.  Be sure your operators use good industrial hygiene practices (e.g. chemical gloves) in sampling streams for chlorides since most chloride compounds are hazardous, even in the low concentrations we are testing.Analyze the hydroprocessing unit feed.  Determine the total chloride content of the feed...
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Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units - Part 1: Recognizing the Problem

chloride-processing-at-night Chlorides in Hydroprocessing - Part 1
IntroductionThis series of three articles explores the impacts chlorides may have on hydroprocessing units (hydrotreaters and hydrocrackers).  It provides a methodical approach to identifying the typical effects that point toward chlorides, the sources of chlorides in process feed streams, chloride-induced failure mechanisms, methods for identifying chlorides, strategies for chloride control, and a step-by-step process outline for dealing with a problem.  Some of the approaches and impacts here can also be applied to other halogens in hydrotreaters, such as fluoride.This first article of the series focuses on recognizing a chloride problem in a hydroprocessing unit.  In the second article, we tackle how to identify the magnitude and source(s) of the problem.  The third article presents ways to address the chloride issues.Read Part 2 of this blog--------------------------------------------------------Problems caused by chlorides are often missed or misdiagnosed in a refinery.  They impact not only the hydroprocessing units, but other units as well.  Sometimes the methods...
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Risk Assessment of Refinery Hydroprocessing Unit Reactor Effluent Air Coolers (REACs) Made of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS)

REACsDSS-cover_im_20180910-210921_1
Cracking of REAC Duplex Stainless SteelFailures of Refinery Hydroprocessing Unit REACs made of 2205 DSS have in some cases resulted in significant plant damage and extended outages for repairs.  In a few  cases, header box welds have ruptured.  Additionally, failures have occurred at tube-to-tubesheet welds and in REAC inlet and outlet piping made of DSS.  A sufficient number of failures have been reported that the API Subcommittee on Corrosion and Materials has initiated a program to survey the refining industry to understand how wide spread the issue is and to better identify factors leading to cracking.  Additionally, some process licensors have notified their customers of potential concerns and have suggested they undertake risk assessments of their DSS REACs.  In early 2016, the Materials Technology Institute (MTI) issued a publication “Fabrication of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel REACs in Refinery Hydroprocessing Units” that reviewed case histories of failures and provided guidance on factors...
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