Log in

Login to your account

Username *
Password *
Remember Me

Recent Becht News

World Crane & Transport Summit Panel To Include Becht's Heavy Lift Manager

Becht's Heavy LIft Manager, Joe Collins, will be participating as a featured panelist at the upcoming World Crane & Transport Summit (WCTS) to be held November 12 & 13, 2014 in Miami, Florida..  The panel will discuss heavy lifting and transport in the oil and gas sector. 

Mr. Collins has 40 years experience in the heavy lift industry. He is currently serving as Vise President of the Board of Directors for the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO), an independent, not-for-profit organization established in 1995 to administer a nationwide program for the certification of crane operators.

Training and Qualification of Bolted Joint Assembly Personnel

For quite some time now, Section VIII Division 1 of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code has included the following provision in Appendix 2-15:


It is recommended that flange joints designed to this Appendix be assembled by qualified procedures and by qualified assemblers. ASME PCC-1 may be used as a guide.

The "qualified procedures" reference is to Appendix A of PCC-1-2010 entitled "Notes Regarding Qualifying Flanged Joint Assemblers" and these notes cover slightly less than ½ page, with an Introductory Note stating that a proposed revision to this Appendix was under consideration by the ASME Pressure Technology Post Construction Committee. Well this "consideration" has come to fruition so that the updated Appendix A in the 2013 Edition of PCC-1 will include a replacement 20+ page Appendix A entitled:



There are three components outlined in the new Appendix A for Qualification of a Bolting Specialist:

• Training – a training course that meets the guidance provided in Appendix A, including examination on the theory.
• Practical – successful completion of a combined practical examination and practical demonstration
• Experience – a requirement of a certain level of field experience


Training in the fundamentals of bolted joint operation and assembly includes instruction in over 20 areas, including:

• General personal joint assembly equipment requirements
• The principles of bolt elongation
• Bolt load and gasket stress
• Functionality of gasket and seal
• Gasket types and their limitations
• Bolt types and their limitations
• Identification of correct joint components
• Manual Torque joint tightening
• Importance of using the specified lubricant
• Techniques used for load control
• Calibration and maintenance of bolt tightening equipment
• Inspection and reporting defects or faults
• Procedure for preparing a joint for closure
• Gasket handling, preparation and installation
• Sources of information on joint assembly
• Safe joint disassembly and assembly
• Joint assembly procedures
• Ensuring correct use of additional joint components
• Importance of procedures, qualification and records
• Joint Disassembly


In addition to training on the theory of joint operation and assembly, different practical demonstrations are required; each designed to clarify one of the following important aspects:

• Importance of bolt assembly pattern
• Importance of bolt assembly pattern versus correct gasket selection
• Importance of joint alignment prior to assembly
• Importance of gasket placement
• Influence of bolt & nut lubrication
• Reaction of different types of gaskets to standard tightening procedures


To complete the training aspect of the qualification program, the candidate will be required to take a practical examination that consists of assembling at least 2 joints while being graded by a Qualified Bolting Specialist Instructor. In addition, there are supplementary training requirements for the optional endorsements to the qualification that focus specifically on aspects that are covered by the field of endorsement (such as the operation of hydraulic equipment for powered equipment endorsement).

Since the practice of assembling a joint in the field provides a significant source of learning for the individual, Appendix A also outlines a minimum amount of experience of bolted joint assembly in the field that is required before an individual can be considered a Qualified Bolting Specialist. The requirement is for 6 months of full time experience, with part time experience being pro-rated depending on the amount of actual assembly experience that the individual is receiving in their day-to-day activities.


The intent of Appendix A is to provide a sound basis for the training, assessment and qualification of bolted joint assemblers, but it is fully recognized that qualifications of this level are not required for every individual involved in the assembly of every joint. In fact, it is common for joints to be assembled using teams of individuals with different skill sets, and it is fully expected that in the best case scenario only one or two individuals may actually be Qualified Bolting Specialists on any given team. It is felt that, through the process of ensuring this potential step change improvement in the knowledge of the team, as a whole, that the intent of the Appendix will have been achieved.


In order to achieve the desired goal, a system of independent third-party verification was developed, which was designed to demonstrate that the qualification programs are in accordance with Appendix A. This approach is similar to an accreditation program, with the exception that there is no central body administering the accreditation. A While the selected approach is perhaps not as good as a true accreditation program in achieving portability, the advantage is that it does allow industry to customize and find a system that will be both practical and efficient for providing the desired end result of assembler qualification. The other advantage is that the lack of a centralized body means that the program growth and implementation is not limited by the capabilities or resource of the centralized body.


Our final thought on implementation is that end-users should be cognizant of the difference between assembler qualification and assembler competency. The Appendix A program has been formulated to try to maximize the likelihood that a qualified assembler will also be a competent assembler by the inclusion of experience and practical examinations/demonstrations. However, in the end it is only by witnessing the individual at work over an extended period of time that competency can truly be judged, such as the system for on-going inspection and testing of welder performance which is required to maintain their qualifications. Therefore, the onus for determining the competency of an assembler will remain the responsibility of their employer, even if they may hold a joint assembler qualification.

Clyde C. Neely, Becht Engineering Fellow 

A Lift Plan for Every Lift

Ten Questions That Must Be Answered Before Attempting Any Lift

When attempting any lift, regardless of how small or seemingly insignificant, there is some basic information that must be known and confirmed before you begin. As an industry, we do a great job planning critical and super lifts.  These major lifts are executed with precision and are successful if the plan is carefully followed. We don’t do as well on the everyday routine or standard lifts. In most cases there is little or no planning and when things go wrong, accidents result. In my experience, the majority of crane accidents result from lifts that are classified as standard when in fact there is nothing standard about any lift.

There are ten questions that must be answered for any lift and could be considered a basic lift plan for standard lifts. The ten questions can be converted into a simple lift plan form. Then, require the crane operator to complete it before each and every lift. It only takes a few minutes and could prevent a costly accident. It has been shown that when a lift plan is required for every lift, the supervisors, operators and riggers catch mistakes before they happen.

For example: The lift could be at a high percent of capacity. The crew may need to move the crane a few feet to reduce the radius, significantly improving the capacity and safety of the lift.

The Ten Questions that must be answered include:

  1. WHAT IS THE "VERIFIED" WEIGHT OF THE LOAD? It is not possible to make a safe lift when the weight of the load is not known or verified. Many smaller loads can be easily calculated; such as a bucket of concrete or a steel beam. Most loads are shipped to the work site by truck; the trucking company weight ticket is a good source for weight information.In any case, the load weight is critical and must be known and verified

  2. WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM RADIUS? The radius is defined as the distance between the center of rotation of a crane and the center of gravity of a freely suspended load. The radius must be known and should be measured. At a minimum, a dry run should be preformed by placing the empty hook over the pick and set locations; measuring radius for each case. Calculate the lift according to the farthest distance.

  3. WHAT IS THE RIGGING CAPACITY AND WEIGHT? Calculate the capacity of the rigging configuration. The system is only as strong as the weakest link. Consider the effect of sling angles on the rigging and try to maintain angles of 60 degrees, or higher, to horizontal. A sling angle of thirty degrees to horizontal results in a force of two times the force applied to a vertical sling. Calculate the effective weight of the rigging system and record it on the plan. The weight of the entire rigging system is deductible from the crane chart gross capacity

  4. WHAT ARE THE APPLICABLE CAPACITY CHART DEDUCTIONS? Once a crane is configured it is usually not changed often. A suggestion is to add all the deductible crane accessories and make a note of the combined deductions. Then all the operator has to do is add the weight of the rigging to the accessory total and subtract the combined total from the “gross” capacity to obtain the “net” capacity. Everything hanging under the boom top is considered part of the load. Don’t forget to include deductions for attachments that are mounted on the boom and not used; such as jibs or boom extensions.

  5. WHAT IS THE CRANE "NET" CAPACITY AFTER DEDUCTIONS? (At the maximum radius and crane configuration) Very often accidents occur because the operator relies solely on the “gross” capacity from the crane chart. All deductible items must be subtracted from the “gross” capacity to establish the “net” capacity.

  6. IS THE CRANE ON FIRM LEVEL GROUND? Ground bearing calculations and soils analysis are not practical for every lift made by small cranes. Matting should always be used; without exception. Due their small size, the manufacturers’ outrigger floats (pads) are not designed to stand-alone and do not provide an acceptable load distribution. Check to see if there has been a recent excavation in the set up area. A sure sign of trouble is when the crane tires sink into the ground while driving into position. A simple approach to matting size is to divide the crane rated capacity by 4. Then take the square root of the dividend. The result can be considered the length of one side of a square mat. This method is only a starting point and will not be sufficient in every case. Be sure to make the mat to strong enough to resist bending so as not to reduce the load distribution to the ground.Example: 50 ton crane / 4 = 12.5; the square root of 12.5 = 3.53 so your square mat should be a minimum of 3.5 feet for each side.

  7. ARE THERE POWER LINES ANYWHERE IN THE PATH OF THE LOAD OR CRANE ATTACHMENTS? Search for power lines and sources of electric energy before moving the crane into position. Note the locations and record them on the lift plan. Discuss the lift plan with all persons evolved so that everyone is aware of a potential hazard. A designated spotter is required to warn the crane operator of an impending contact. Beware of power lines that are hidden within tree branches or behind buildings. Statistically, power line contact is most occurring crane accident worldwide. These accidents out number all other crane accidents combined.See the OSHA Power Line Rule found in the Subpart CC - 1926.1400 standard at www.osha.gov for more information and direction.

  8. ARE THERE OBSTRUCTIONS ANYWHERE IN THE PATH OF THE LOAD OR CRANE ATTACHMENTS? Check the work area for obstructions. Make a dry run through the full swing path of the proposed lift and observe the boom clearance to any obstructions.

  9. WILL THE LOAD CONTACT THE CRANE BOOM OR JIB AT ANYTIME DURING THE LIFT? Is the load long and can it contact the boom or jib during the lift? If a load contacts a loaded boom, the boom could collapse. Will there be room to turn a long load for alignment during the lift? Always use non-conductive tag lines to control the load.

  10. WHAT IS THE RATIO OF CRANE CAPACITY TO NET LOAD? Calculate the percent of chart capacity by dividing the load weight by the net capacity. When a crane is nearing capacity everything has to be exactly right. If anything goes wrong it happens fast there is little chance to recover. Percent of chart often defines a critical lift and an additional, comprehensive, "Critical Lift Plan" may be in order. It is advisable to establish a definition and procedure for a “Critical Lift”. It is advisable to require the completion of a more comprehensive “Critical Lift” plan when the “Ten Question” plan indicates the lift has met the criteria for critical lift.  It has been observed that when the ten-question lift plan indicated it is a critical lift; the crew will re-think the set up and lift parameters, there by reducing the percent of capacity to a more reasonable, lower ratio.


The project experienced three major crane accidents during the first month of construction. After consultation with the author, the Project Manager created a ten question lift plan and made it mandatory for every lift and required a critical lift plan for any lift over 85% of chart. The critical lift plan had to be approved by the Project Manager or the designated Lift Specialist. The 10-question lift plan for every lift was a condition of employment and strictly enforced. The project was completed, in three years, on time and under budget without an additional crane related accident or incident. The project management team observed that all craft supervisors with crane related responsibilities became creative about how they set up the cranes. In many instances they were able to effect minor changes to the crane set up locations, improving the lift parameters resulting in lifts rated well below the critical lift criteria.

It should be understood that there are many things that affect the safety of a lift. The ten-question lift plan is intended to inspire creative thinking and assure the most vital parameters are considered. It does not, in any way, relieve the crane operator or rigging crew from their responsibilities to consider everything that may affect the safety on any lift.

 Joe Collins, Becht's Heavy Lift Manager

RBI & RBWS - Keys to Significant Savings on Refinery Turnarounds

A team of Becht engineers, in collaboration with owner/operator personnel, recently completed a successful Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) Assessment and a Turnaround Risk Based Work Selection (TA/RBWS) Assessment for a major complex refinery in the Gulf Coast. These assessments enabled the refinery to closely evaluate a very ambitious work scope for an upcoming turnaround and resulted in a significant savings to the work scope of approximately $10 to $15 million. API inspection codes and standards allow owner/operators the ability to plan an inspection strategy (increase or decrease the inspection frequencies) and/or replace turnaround inspections with alternative on-line risk mitigation approaches based on the results of a risk-based inspection assessment.

These assessments must systematically evaluate both the probability of failure and the associated consequence of failure. The probability of failure assessment must consider all forms of deterioration that could reasonably be expected to affect the piece of equipment in the particular service. The intent of this project was to assist the refinery in finalizing their work scope for an upcoming Turnaround. The assessments included Fixed Equipment, Fired Heaters, Rotating Equipment, Electrical Systems, Motors, Instrumentation, Piping and Valves, and Flare systems which covered a number of Process Units throughout the refinery. The RBI and TA/RBWS assessments included the application of the client’s corporate risk matrix for determination of risk levels and risk reduction. The RBI assessments for Fixed Equipment utilized Becht’s proprietary software tool –STIER© (Strategy Tool for Improving Equipment Reliability).  In addition to the STIER© tool, Becht Engineering has a software tool – STRAITS© (Strategy Tool for Risk Assessment for Improved Turnaround Scope) for facilitating risk based work selection. 

The TA/RBWS assessments covered Work List items included in the refinery’s Turnaround Plans. The RBWS incorporated Becht’s Risk Based Benefit Cost Analysis (RBBCA) for equipment items that have a high financial impact. Equipment in each Process Unit was assessed by the refinery teams for inclusion in the TA Work List or for elimination, or deferment to a future turnaround. The work was completed by a team of Senior Specialists from Becht Engineering Company that included Arcot  Radhakrishnan, Eileen Chant, Phong Diep, Don Bagnoli and Jerry Horak. Over 50 refinery personnel including Operations Supervisors, Process Engineers, Complex Managers, Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), TA Planners, Reliability Engineers, Inspectors, and Technicians participated in these assessments.

Excellent participation by the teams throughout the phases of equipment data collection, initial screening and analysis, and front end planning as well as during the RBI and RBWS work processes contributed to the successful outcome of this work. In addition to providing a significant cost savings to the site, the RBI Work Process for Fixed Equipment allowed for the development of Equipment Reliability Plans (ERPs) for each of the 187 vessels covered by the assessment. The ERPs describe all pertinent inspection, maintenance, monitoring and surveillance tasks and adequately define the scope of work to sustain long term reliability. The Equipment Task Lists include work that has been justified for TAs and provide the basis for TA Work Lists on future Unit Turnarounds.

The recommended Industry Best Practice for maintaining the ERPs is to set up a work process which ensures that Inspection and Operations periodically review data on thickness, and corrosion rates, and determine whether the documented risk levels in the ERPs may need changes. The development of the Equipment Reliability Plans will now allow the Unit Teams, with oversight from the Reliability Group, to maintain and update the ERPs to reflect inspection data and operating history. This Best Practice will enable the site to plan ahead for future events, and contribute towards reliability excellence in the long term.

Becht Welcomes M&D Professional Services

The engineering consulting operations of M&D Professional Services (www.mdpsi.com) has become the Richland, Washington office of Becht Engineering, effective April 28, 2012.

The office in Richland will become a regional office of Becht Engineering and a division of Becht Nuclear Services, managed by Jack Cole, PE reporting to George Antaki, PE, Becht Engineering Chief Nuclear Engineer.

Becht Engineering offers the services of world-renowned subject matter experts in equipment, systems, nuclear and industrial plant technical troubleshooting and laser scanning. We also provide senior technical staff to augment our client’s staff for shutdowns, special operations, turnarounds or capital projects.

Subscribe or View Newsletters

Subscribe to our newsletters

or Click Link to View Archives

Upcoming Becht Training Courses

Mon Mar 02 @ 8:00AM - 04:30PM
API-579/ASME FFS-1 Fitness for Service with BechtFFS Software #28951 - Webster, TX
Hilton Garden Inn Houston/Clear Lake NASA - 750 West Texas Ave., Webster, Texas 77598
Mon Mar 09 @ 8:00AM - 04:30PM
ASME Section VIII, Division 1 Pressure Vessel Design with Software Application Training Course #28950 - Webster, TX
Hilton Garden Inn Houston/Clear Lake NASA - 750 West Texas Ave., Webster, Texas 77598
Wed Apr 01 @ 8:00AM - 04:30PM
Storage Tank Design and Maintenance (API 650 & API-653) #28953 - Houston, TX
Becht Houston Office - 14200 Gulf Freeway, Suite 100, Houston, TX 77034