Recent Advances in Becht’s HTHA Damage Modeling Approach- Part 3: C-0.5Mo Dataset and Calibration

Overview Part 2 of this series presented the extension of our model to C-0.5Mo material and calibration to very detailed through-wall damage data for five C-0.5Mo cases (from [1]).  This part completes the analysis of C-0.5Mo by including data from API RP 941 [2] (including both plotted and file points) and the remaining cases from […]

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Recent Advances in Becht’s HTHA Damage Modeling Approach- Part 2: Through-Wall Damage Modeling

Overview In Part 1 of this blog series an overview of two basic extensions to our void growth based HTHA model was given.  In this part, validation of through-wall damage predictions are provided by leveraging the unique and exceptionally detailed work presented in the Peng Lui PhD dissertation [1].  Validation is critical for any model, […]

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Recent Advances in Becht’s HTHA Damage Modeling Approach -Part 1

Overview This past spring, we described how we’ve incorporated well-established void growth modeling into our high temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) assessment approach [1].  The purpose of this extension was to blend a reliable time basis for HTHA with our existing critical factor-based method (also published in the Inspectioneering Journal 6 years earlier [2]). The Inspectioneering […]

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Risk Ranking Of Cracking Failures Of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) REACs In Hydroprocessing Equipment – An Update

Introduction This is an update to our previous blog on cracking of refinery hydroprocessing REACs made of duplex stainless steel:  View Original Post 2205 DSS (UNS S31803 or S32205) has been used in refinery hydroprocessing unit reactor effluent air coolers (REACs) since the mid 1980’s (1).  2205 was selected due to its good resistance to ammonium […]

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Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units – Part 3: Managing the Chlorides

The first two articles of this series provided a methodical approach to identifying a chloride problem in a hydroprocessing unit, determining the size of the problem, and narrowing it down to a likely source or sources.  This final article addresses approaches to dealing with various sources. Step 4 – Managing the Chlorides Now that you […]

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Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units – Part 2: Magnitude and Source(s) the Problem

The first article of this series introduced the symptoms of a chloride problem in a hydroprocessing unit.  In this article, we will explore how to interpret the symptoms by determining how much chloride-containing material we are looking for and identifying the possible or likely source(s) for this amount of material, embodied in Steps 2 and […]

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Origins and Fates of Chlorides in Hydroprocessing Units – Part 1: Recognizing the Problem

Introduction This series of three articles explores the impacts chlorides may have on hydroprocessing units (hydrotreaters and hydrocrackers).  It provides a methodical approach to identifying the typical effects that point toward chlorides, the sources of chlorides in process feed streams, chloride-induced failure mechanisms, methods for identifying chlorides, strategies for chloride control, and a step-by-step process […]

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Eight Pillars Of Excellent FEMI Programs

INTRODUCTION A refinery or chemical plant Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI) program consists of eight basic categories or “Pillars” that are fundamental to achieve FEMI excellence. While every refinery or chemical plant has some form of these Pillars in place, they are often inadequately implemented or have significant gaps in the key elements that make […]

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Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs), a Key Piece to Your Integrity Program, But Where Else Should They Be Integrated?

Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs) are a key component of a world class mechanical integrity program.  IOWs are not a new concept, as they have been around in different forms for many years.  However, with the publication of the first edition of API RP 584, Integrity Operating Windows, in 2014 and the more recent first edition […]

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Grade 91 Steel – How Did We Get Here? Part 1

This blog is the first part of a 3-blog series. To view the rest of the story click HERE for Part 2 and Here for Part 3. Part 1: History Thirty years ago, Grade 91 (9Cr-1Mo-V) steel was hailed as the savior of the power generation industry [1]; now it’s behavior has been described as […]

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